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Working With It - Selecting

Heat Pumps

Water-to-Air Heat Pumps

Heatpump diagram

Units are available in a number of configurations. Airflow is usually in the 400 cfm per ton range.


Note: Because winter ground loop temperatures can drop below freezing, closed loop systems require extended rating designs.

Configurations and nominal cooling ranges include:

  • Vertical upflow air discharge from to 10 tons
  • Vertical counterflow air discharge from one to six tons
  • Horizontal ceiling mounted from to 10 tons
  • Duel compressor units in the above three categories
  • Split systems (compressor/water heater exchangers and air handling sections) from 1-1/4 to five tons
  • Large commercial vertical upflow air discharge from 10 to 30 tons

Other specialty extended rating designs available include:

  • Two-speed units, horizontal and vertical from 2-1/2 to six tons
  • Floor-mounted console units from to 1-1/2 tons
  • High-rise vertical units, pre-piped and wired, built-in or flush-mounted from to three tons
  • Large commercial vertical variable air volume units, rooftop packages from five to 25 tons
  • Schoolroom unit ventilator units from two to four tons

Manufacturers offer a wide range of optional accessory items, including hot water generators, system controls, supplemental electric heat packages, dehumidification options, cupro-nickel water-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, hose kits, cabinet paint finishes, improved filters, sound attenuation packages and flow centers (loop pump modules).

Water-to-Water Heat Pumps

These are typically single packages for indoor installation, usually floor or slab mounted, and are made in sizes from one to two nominal cooling tons and larger.

There is no practical upper limit and very large sizes use centrifugal compressors. Typically, these units can produce up to 130 degrees hot water and have operating limits as shown in this table.

Ambient Air Limits Cooling Heating
11 1 1.676 13.8
12 2 2.095 21.5
Entering Water Limits
Minimum 40 F 25 F antifreeze
Normal 85 F 70 F
Maximum 110 F 80 F

Units in sizes over 10 tons and for over 130 degrees hot water are considered industrial heat pumps and are not covered.

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